0000001396 00000 n Duckweed in the absence of a screen Average population count of Duckweed in the presence of a screen 0 20.5 19.5 5 53 45 7 85 65 11 185.5 138 13 307 172.5 Using the experimental data, we calculated the per capita population growth rate of Lemna minor … 1). 235 0 obj Yes Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Okara, Okara, Punjab, Pakistan, Affiliation Lemna minuta is considered invasive in several European countries, where it can occur in the same habitat as invasive Azolla filiculoides and native Lemna minor. Lemna minor NC State University and N.C. A&T State University work in tandem, along with federal, state and local governments, to form a strategic partnership called N.C. Lemna minor: University of Toronto Culture Collection (UTCC) 490 Footnote 13 and 492 Footnote 14. Experiments were conducted at weekly intervals between August and November in 1958 and May and July in 1959. All members of this family Cooperative Extension, which staffs local offices in all 100 counties and with the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians. Duckweed grows on water with relatively hi… Lemna minor NC State University and N.C. A&T State University work in tandem, along with federal, state and local governments, to form a strategic partnership called N.C. endobj Duckweed has tiny, green leaves that float on the surface of the water or just below it, the plant is flowering but the blooms are inconsequential.Duckweed is one of the smallest flowering plants in the world! Lemna minor 1960—were investigated at the Podzámecký fishpond at Průhonice near Praha, during the growing season of 1969. <>/Border[0 0 0]/Contents()/Rect[72.0 618.0547 296.8501 630.9453]/StructParent 2/Subtype/Link/Type/Annot>> : Growth of Lemna minor fronds in the presence of copper in the nutrient medium. This is consistent with the growth of duckweed which is also high at synthetic leachate. Growth Inhibition Test This Test Guideline is designed to assess the toxicity of substances to freshwater aquatic plants of the genus Lemna (duckweed). The results showed that copper inhibited Lemna growth at concentrations ≥ 0.3 mg/L. The results showed that duckweed grown in the presence of a screen exhibited a lower per capita growth rate than duckweed grown in the absence of a screen (Table 2). rapid growth rate (doubling time of 1–4 d) (Blaise & Férard, 2005), high sensitivity to toxicants even at a low loads (Henke et al., 2011; Böcük et al., 2013; Wu & Zhang, 2013), and easy of both cultivation and harvest. Dumpsite leachate used in this study was prepared by processing the mixed solid waste collected from various residential, commercial and industrial dumpsites in Islamabad, Pakistan. 0000015452 00000 n Nitrogen is fixed as protein in duckweed biomass . Unlike other vascular plants, Lemna minor absorbs large amount of phosphorous into its body mass . In some areas this plant is considered to be a pest due to its rapid growth rate. 2 0. 224 20 There are strong theoretical reasons that support the idea that environmental fluctuations matter when studying ecological systems. startxref 4 0. Sugar and starch levels were increased over and above that expected from growth inhibition alone. across. No, PLOS is a nonprofit 501(c)(3) corporation, #C2354500, based in San Francisco, California, US, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0221755. In dumpsite leachate growth rates of Lemna minor ranging from 4.3 to 6.4 g m-2 day -1 have also been reported . Despite highly significant relationships between the growth rate of L. minor and concentrations of dissolved nutrients, each of the regressions alone explained a relatively small percentage of growth rate variability ( R 2 = 0.13, 0.21 and 0.17 for the respective regressions of L. minor growth rate on N-NO 3 , N-NH 4 and … 2 Fig. Writing – original draft, Affiliation : Growth of Lemna minor fronds in the presence of copper in the nutrient medium. 0000002264 00000 n Lemna is one of six genera in the monocot plant family Lemnaceae. 0000001580 00000 n They are abundant in the tropical and subtropical countries; growing profusely in still, nutrient-rich small ponds, ditches, and swamps or in slowly moving water bodies. Duckweed plants were oven dried at 70 0C until it had a constant weight. Abstract. The present investigation considered the possibility of using light of different wavelengths to evaluate control of emergent aquatic vegetation, and Lemna minor was selected as a model system for study. here. In fact, Lemna plants have been found on ducks traveling between lakes on multiple occasio… The effects of global climate change on populations may be further understood when environmental variability is included. Abstract. Harmful effects of water-soluble substances and waste water on the growth of this plant are assessed based on the analysis of different parameters, such as number of fronds, frond area, chlorophyll content, fresh or dry weight. has been recognized and getting more attention recently in wastewater treatment . Due to its low cellulose content (approximately 10%) compared to terrestrial plants, the conversion procedure of the starch to ethanol is relatively easy. No, Is the Subject Area "Water pollution" applicable to this article? In conclusion, many factors such as microbial activities, algal growth and natural decomposition also contribute to nitrogen and phosphorous removal from leachate in addition to absorption by duckweed under the natural duckweed-leachate system. GROWTH OF LEMNA MINOR IN CONTINUOUS LIGHT . Abstract. Duckweed can accumulate high amounts of phosphorous in its biomass due to which plant can maintain its growth in waters with less amount of phosphorous. [228 0 R 229 0 R 230 0 R 231 0 R 232 0 R 233 0 R 234 0 R] The growth rate of L. minor monitored depending on the relative growth rate, coverage area and colour of the plants using Aletheia Lemna Edition software and Munsell colour chart. Lemna Minor AKA Duckweed. In the growth chamber, the required light intensity was adjusted with the help of fluorescent lamps whereas, the required day lengths were adjusted with the help of auto shut down system of fluorescent lights. The flowers are exceptionally small and rarely seen. Results reveal that compared to synthetic leachate under artificial conditions, duckweed removes COD and nutrients more efficiently from dumpsite leachate. 230 0 obj P=X�Kp�u�.�J������e? 224 0 obj Data Availability: All relevant data are within the manuscript and its Supporting Information files. Objectives-Understand some of the factors that affect population growth, like method of reproduction (asexual or Conceptualization, Three separate tests (each comprising two parts) were performed during the month of June-July by growing duckweed on dumpsite leachate (Part 01) under natural conditions and on synthetic leachate (Part 02) under the similar artificial conditions. Maximum growth is found with nitrate plus hydrolyzed casein. The effect of high population densities on the growth rate of Lemna minor (L.) was studied under laboratory conditions at 23 °C in a medium with sufficient nutrients. Experiments were conducted at weekly intervals between August and November in 1958 and May and … Duckweed absorbs variable amounts of nitrogen and phosphorous under varying conditions. 221: Lemna sp. Common Duckweed Lemna minor Duckweed family (Lemnaceae) Description: This floating aquatic plant consists of a single oval or oval-obovate thallus (a body that combines the functions of leaf and stem); it is about 2-5 mm. Composition of typical leachate is highly variable containing large amounts of pollutants and nutrients such as organic matter, ammonia-nitrogen, heavy metals, and chlorinated organic and inorganic salts [3, 4]. About Lemna minor Lemna minor, or duckweek, is a member of the family Lemnaceae. Analysis of metal concentration in water showed that Lemna minor was responsible … Study provides the useful simulations for lab scale or field scale research on leachate treatment by duckweed. Maximum growth is found with nitrate plus hydrolyzed casein. <>/Metadata 222 0 R/Outlines 181 0 R/Pages 216 0 R/StructTreeRoot 186 0 R/Type/Catalog/ViewerPreferences<>>> Roots are photosynthetically active having chloroplast in it. In order to test the effects that temperature fluctuations have on population dynamics, we used the species . If Lemna is placed on water, there is a reduction in the rate constants of synthesis of protein and an increase (3- to 6-fold) in the rate constant of degradation. Citation: Iqbal J, Javed A, Baig MA (2019) Growth and nutrient removal efficiency of duckweed (lemna minor) from synthetic and dumpsite leachate under artificial and natural conditions. growth rate at constant temperatures, we then tested the growth rate in fluctuating temperatures in order to evaluate the importance of Jensen’s inequality in a real population. Using the experimental data, we calculated the per capita population growth rate of Lemna minor using the equation r = 1/t∙ln(Nt/N0). During each test, duckweed was grown in 300 mL plastic containers with a surface area of 25.8 cm2. 2 Fig. Duckweed growth was assessed when supplied at different total nitrogen (TN) concentrations (1-5 mg/L) in the culture medium. Major part of the plant comprises a thallus called "frond" which is generally composed of chlorenchymatous cells having air pockets called aerenchyma due to which duckweed floats on water. The relative growth rate (RGR) of L. minor varied among different treatments in all three experiments. 4. Discover a faster, simpler path to publishing in a high-quality journal. (2003) . https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0221755.g002. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0221755.g001. Absorption of nitrogen by duckweed largely depends on the initial nitrogen concentration in growth media, Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), hydraulic retention time and duckweed plant density . No, Is the Subject Area "Ponds" applicable to this article? So far, no such comparison is available in literature however very few isolated research studies have been conducted using either natural or artificial duckweed-leachate systems. reported that in wastewater with initial nitrogen concentration of 12 mg N L-1 duckweed consumed nitrogen at the rate of 446 mg m-2 day-1 .