buddleja davidii invasive species

07/12/2020 Uncategorized

SKEW, 2009. Hallac BB; Sannigrahi P; Pu Y; Ray M; Murphy RJ; Ragauskas AJ, 2009. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers, 46:13-15. It has become increasingly clear that Buddleia davidii can be highly invasive. Wilson, 1913; Williams, 1979; Miller, 1984; Smale, 1990; Reinhart et al., 2003; Bellingham et al., 2005; Godefroid et al., 2007; Tallent-Halsell, 2008; Tallent-Halsell and Watt, 2009). Vascular flora of Jamaica Bay Wildlife Refuge Long Island, New York. New York, USA: Cramer, Wheldon and Wesley. PQR database. to ozone. Dirr M, 1997. WSNWCB, 2009. New Zealand, South Island. in Berlin) Berliner Naturschutzblätter, 14:407-410. Biocontrol News and Information. Flora of New Zealand Volume IV: Naturalized Pteridophytes, Gymnosperms, Dicotyledons. Manual of the Flowering Plants of Hawai'i. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report. Reclamation and Revegetation Research, 6:55-61. Douglas GW Straley GB Meidinger DV Pojar J, 1998. The invasive shrub Buddleja davidii performs better in its introduced range. Find out more about the nature and wildlife outside your window. Get out, get busy and get wild! Pharmaceutical Biology, 46:506-601. Oecologia, 153:501-510. http://www.aluka.org/action/showMetadata?doi=10.5555/AL.AP.FLORA.FZ5537&pgs=. The full potential of this species has yet to be realized; however, it is already considered problematic (i.e. Banc de dades de biodiversitat de Catalunya. Wallingford, UK: CABI, CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status inferred from regional distribution. London, UK: The Independent. Buddleja davidii in Britain: History and development of an associated species. Victoria, Canada: BC Ministry of Environment, Lands and Parks and BC Ministry of Forests. Pysek P; Sadlo J; Mandak B, 2002. [Family Loganiaceae]. Letter to C. Darwin, June 12. In: NatureServe Explorer: An Online Encyclopedia of Life, Arlington, USA: NatureServe. Further disintegration of Scrophulariacea. Roja D, 1998. Gunn C R, 1959. Shannon R K, Wagner W L, 1996. Physiologia Plantarum, 128:772-731. Wagner WL; Herbst DR; Sohmer SH, 1999. The PLANTS Database. Clark R C, 1971. USA: National Park Service, 10 pp. Plantae Davidianae ex sinarum imperio, Part 2. My Croxley News., 5. http://publishing.yudu.com/Freedom/Afb0k/MYCROXLEYOCTOBER/resources/5.htm. Jussieu ALde, 1789. Cox EHM, 1986. by Steenis CGGJvan]., 293-387. Thomas MM; Watt MS; Turnbull MH; Peltzer D; Whitehead D, 2008. http://www.hear.org/pier/index.html. PlantExplorers, 2009. Seed bank composition and variability in five woodlands in south-west England. 4, 06120 Halle, Germany, Nita Tallent-Halsell, Southwest Ecosystem Services, USEPA/ORD/NERL Landscape Ecology Branch, Environmental Sciences Division, 944 E. Harmon Ave., Las Vegas, NV 89119, USA. Butterfly bush can produce asexually from plant parts. Turnbull C, 2004. Buddleja species were divided into four sections by Leeuwenberg (1979): SECTION: Buddleja – New World species distinguished by a valvate corolla e.g. The invasive Buddleja davidii (Butterfly Bush). [Botany Division DSIR Report.]. Biomass characterization of Buddleja davidii: a potential feedstock for biofuel production. Warr SJ; Kent M; Thompson K, 1994. Flora of Japan. Ecological role of buddleia (Buddleja davidii) in streambeds in Te Urewera National Park. http://www.keepcroxleygreen.co.uk/. The effects of defoliation on seasonal growth dynamics, the importance of internal nitrogen-recycling and the availability of soil nutrients: implications for the invasive potential of Buddleia davidii (Franch.). Die Samenpflanzen. Williams PA, 1979. (Der Stellenwert eines Buddleja-Beobachtungsnetzes fur die Erfassung von Tagfalterbestanden) Oko L, 5:10-16. Roja D, 1998. http://www.hear.org/Pier//pdf/pohreports/, Stokes K; O'Neill K; McDonald R, 2004. It can grow in many places, even in cracks in buildings several floors up. However, B. variabilis is still listed as a synonym of B. davidii. Warr SJ; Keever G; Findley D; Kessler G, 2002. In: Proceedings of the Southern Nursery Association Research Conference, 630-632. Yoshida T; Nobuhara J; Uchida M; Okuda T, 1976. http://data.gbif.org. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 11(3):293-308. [Family Loganiaceae]. Mechanisms of Pinus radiata growth suppression by some common forest weed species. Flora von Nordtirol, Osttirol und Vorarlberg, Volume 2. Buddleja davidii on seashore. http://www.goert.ca/documents/Bib_budddavi.pdf, Csurhes S; Edwards R, 1998. In: Ministry of Forestry, FRI Bulletin [ed. Ream J, 2006. EPPO, 2005. Baker W; Hemming R; Ollis WD, 1951. Presence in gardens does not indicate that it has naturalized, Georgia Institute of Technology is considering B. davidii as potential feedstock for biofuel production (Hallac et al., 2009), Seed collection, probably source of seeds that have been sent to Kew Gardens, Managed forests, plantations and orchards, Cf - Warm temperate climate, wet all year, Warm average temp. Craig J, McCoy M, 2005. Anon, 1925. Aluka African Plants, 2009. Journal of Undergraduate Research, 5(2):1. http://www.aluka.org/action/showMetadata?doi=10.5555/AL.AP.FLORA.FZ5537&pgs= DOI:10.5555/AL.AP.FLORA.FZ5537. New Zealand Journal of Botany, 26:565-584. Webb DA, 1985. Bulletin of Miscellaneous Information, 9:337-365. Additionally, leaves appear to be palatable to polyphagous insects such as slugs, snails and aphids, but also to the glasshouse whitefly [Trialeurodes vaporariorum] and red spider mite [Tetranychus urticae] (Miller, 1984; Gillman, 1998). It is most likely that further distribution will be attributed to the horticultural industry. Shi Z; Liu S; Liu X; Centritto M, 2006. Landscape and Urban Planning, 80:45-55. Garden residents as well as escapees serve as satellites, which then spread the species on to disturbed and wild lands and this is a cause for concern. New York, USA: Macmillan, 996 pp. New state and regional records of vascular plants in the Carolinas. In Europe, transportation routes have been negatively effected (Reinhardt et al., 2003), but there is no analysis of the costs caused by the negative economic impact of B. davidii. [English title not available]. Journal of the Chemical Society:691-695. In: The PLANTS Database, Baton Rouge, USA: National Plant Data Center. Humphries, R.N. Buddleia davidii - or 'butterfly bush' - is great at attracting various insects to feed on its nectar. Order: Gentianales, Family: Loganiaceae [ed. Invasion of Buddleja davidii: Impacts on the geomorphology of a gravel bar in the Tolt River, Washington. Urban domestic gardens (VII): a preliminary survey of soil seed banks. Ebeling SK; Hensen I; Auge H, 2008. Areas most at risk included Eastern Europe, South Africa, Western Australia, and a broad coastal strip of land within South America from Rio de Janeiro in the north to central Argentina in the south. Buddleia davidii; common name butterfly bush) is a perennial, semi-deciduous, multi-stemmed shrub that is resident in gardens and disturbed areas. They are semi-deciduous, with smaller leaves immediately replacing the shed leaves in autumn. Differential response of Buddleia (Buddleja davidii Franch.) The impact of defoliation on nitrogen translocation patterns in the woody invasive plant, Buddleia davidii. The species has had a substantial and detrimental impact on the growth of plantation species by restricting light availability in a number of countries, including New Zealand (Richardson et al., 1996). Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh, 2010. Heidelberg, Germany: Spektrum Akademischer Verlag, 472 pp. Biological Conservation, 17:149-155. There are actually some Buddleias that are not thought to be invasive. B. davidii is a multi-stemmed shrub or small-tree that is native to China and has been introduced as an ornamental world-wide, first to Europe (1890s) and then later to the Americas, Australia, New Zealand, and some parts of Africa. Taxon, 54:411-425. The woody plants of Alabama. Chicago, USA: University of Chicago Press, 520 pp. Moller D, 2003. Visual quality, growth, and development. Buddleia davidii. Areas most at risk include Eastern Europe, South Africa, Western Australia and South America. Bellingham PJ; Peltzer DA; Walker LR, 2005. USDA-NRCS, 2008. One or more of the features that are needed to show you the maps functionality are not available in the web browser that you are using. Franchet A, 1884. Nitrogen (N) and water are important resources limiting plant growth. Pistia stratiotes. Castanea. GBIF, 2009. Weed Research, 48:340-348. Systematic Botany, 24:164-182. Although these can make great habitats for wildlife in your garden, here are some things to consider. Duff RB; Bacon JSD; Mundie CM; Farmer VC; Russell JD; Forrester AR, 1965. B. davidii is named after the French missionary and explorer in China, Father Armand David, who was the first European to report the shrub. Outline of the classification of flowering plants (Magnoliophyta). Flora of Bhutan including a record of plants from Sikkim and Darjeeling., 2 (3) Edinburgh, UK: Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh and Royal Government of Bhutan. Paris R; Chaslot M, 1955. Since that time, B. davidii has naturalized within sub-oceanic climates in the temperate and sub-Mediterranean zones. New state and regional records of vascular plants in the Carolinas. Georgia, USA: Center for Applied Nursery Research. Las Vegas, USA: University of Nevada. Fan P; Hay A; Marston A; Hostettmann K, 2008. The Chinese and Japanese species of Buddleia. http://www.plantexplorers.com/explorers/biographies/french-missionaries/pere-paul-guillaume-farges.htm. Doughty R, 2007. by O'Callaghan M], 113-118. Kaufman SR; Kaufman W, 2007. Invasive species in Ireland. The weed status and ecology of Buddleia davidii in the Orongorongo Valley (Tararua Ecological District). Rehder A, 1927. Leenhouts PW, 1963. 247-258. Characterizing potential invasiveness of fourteen Buddleja cultivars in South Florida. A dynamic, stochastic dispersal model of the widely invasive plant Buddleja davidiiwas calibrated on European spread data and then used to project the temporal progression of B. davidii's distribution in New Zealand, starting from several different historical distributions. New Phytologist, 97:219-639. Compendium record. Terpenoids in Buddleja: Relevance to chemosystematics, chemical ecology and biological activity. Beijing, China: Science Press, 453 pp. Anisko T; Im U, 2001. New Zealand Journal of Ecology, 18:29-40. PlantExplorers.com: Pere Paul Guillaume Farges (1844-1912). The ecological web: more on the distribution and abundance of animals. CABI is a registered EU trademark. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, 141:399-436. Segal S, 1969. Rahman A; Popay I, 2009. Review of emerging weed problems in hill country pastures. The distribution and ecology of Buddleja davidii Franch in Britain, with particular reference to conditions supporting germination and the establishment of seedlings. It is known as the Butterfly Bush and continues to be planted in gardens to attract insect life but once it has jumped the wall it can cause havoc. > 0°C, dry summers, Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter, Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. Canberra, Australia: Biodiversity Group, Environmental Australia, 202 pp. http://plants.usda.gov. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label. Butterfly bush is considered invasive in many states, as well as England and New Zealand. Arlington, USA: NatureServe. Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain: Generalitat de Catalunya i Univ. Global Invasive Species Database (GISD). by Leeuwenberg AJM] Berlin, Germany: Duncker & Humblot, 8-96. In addition to ODA's "B" noxious weed listing, Buddleja davidii appears on the "Most Invasive" species list of the Pacific Northwest Exotic Pest Plant Council and the Native Plant Societies of Oregon and Washington. Flora Malesiana I [ed. March, 2006. Hong Kong, China: Oxford University Press, 240 pp. Christchurch, New Zealand: Department of Scientific and Industrial Research, 1365 pp. Leach J E, 2007. Buddledin A, B and C, piscicidal sesquiterpenes from Buddleja davidii Franch. Germination rates of seeds can exceed 80%. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers. Buddlejas. Journal of Ecology, 84:755-765. PIER, 2010. Due to its popularity, nurseries continue to distribute plants capable of setting seed. Dickie IA; Thomas MM; Bellingham PJ, 2007. Butterfly bush (Buddleja davidii) is a deciduous to semi evergreen shrub that grows up to 5 m tall. New records of Hawaiian flowering plants primarily from the United States National Herbarium. A multi-scale assessment of the occurrence of exotic plants on the Olympic Peninsula, Washington. The Netherlands: Leyden, 500 pp. http://www.ensisjv.com/NewsEventsandPublications/Newsletters/ForestHealthNews/ForestHealthNewsArchive/tabid/179/Default.aspx. Albrecht HJ, 2004. http://plants.usda.gov/. 453 pp. An overview of invasive woody plants in the tropics. Dungeness River, Washington, USA. New Zealand: DSIR. Baton Rouge, USA: National Plant Data Center. EPPO Reporting Service. SECTION: Neemda – the majority of species from all continents.. Journal of Ecology, 36:136-148. and Buddleia davidii Franch. Impact of Buddleja davidii on New Zealand floodplains over time. Buddleja occurs in open and disturbed sites like railways, building sites, walls, cliffs, wastelands and ruins. Portland, USA: Timber Press. L. A. S. Johnson Review No. Portland, USA: Timber Press, 192 pp. London, UK: The Guardian. Buddleja davidii thickets on Fagan Creek, South Island, New Zealand. Exotic Plant Management: Redwood National and State Parks - Progress Report. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. http://www.cps-skew.ch/. In New Zealand, Chromosomal analyses indicate that the basic chromosome number of, Since the late 1990s several hybridization programmes have been initiated (, A comparison of native and invasive populations of. Ein Beitrag zum System der Sympetalen) Botanisches Jahrbuch Systematic, 79:17-35. Kriticos DJ; Watt MS; Whitehead D; Gous SF; Potter KJ; Richardson B, 2007. Heathland home to more than 2565 species. Watson M, 2007. and Populus spp. Journal of Biogeography, 21:151-268. Plant-hunting in China: History of Botanical Exploration in China and the Tibetan Marches (Oxford in Asia Hardback Reprints). Buddleja davidii is a deciduous shrub that is 3-15 ft. (1-5 m) tall with arching stems. Manual of the Flowering Plants of Hawai'i. [Plant Collector Guide Series.]. Buddleja davidii (spelling variant Buddleia davidii), also called summer lilac, butterfly-bush, or orange eye, is a species of flowering plant in the family Scrophulariaceae, native to Sichuan and Hubei provinces in central China, and also Japan. EPPO Global database. Seeds are mainly dispersed by wind during dry days, but they can also spread by water-dispersal (flowing through lakes and rivers). http://www.canr.org/98000a.pdf. Thomas MM, 2007. Bartling FG, 1830. Modul flora i vegetacio. Reinhardt F; Herle M; Bastiansen F; Streit B, 2003. New York, USA: Cramer, Wheldon and Wesley. Evaluation of Buddleia by Dr. Michael Dirr. SC037654, Accepting all non-essential cookies helps us to personalise your experience, These cookies are required for basic web functions, Allow us to collect anonymised performance data, Who to contact if you spot an injured or baby bird, Help nature thrive as a corporate partner, Climate change effects on nature and wildlife. The worst invasives in the New York metropolitan area. Annotated bibliography on the ecology and management of invasive species: Butterfly bush (Buddleja davidii Franchet) (synonym Buddleia davidii Franchet). SKEW, 2009. Although butterflies will use this plant as a nectar source their larvae cannot survive on it. 1-6. Forest Health News. Celebrations as Keep Croxley 'Green' Group victorious. Verbreitungsatlas der Farn- und Blutenpflanzen der Schweiz. Unaware of Franchet’s description, Hemsley called the plant Buddleja variabilis Hemsley (Hemsley, 1889). Yes, they do. Buddleja davidii, or the butterfly bush, is a species native to China popular in the southern US for its ability to thrive with minimal effort, its big, clustered sprays of purple flowers, and the butterflies those flowers attract. Vascular flora of Jamaica Bay Wildlife Refuge Long Island, New York. USA, USDA-NRCS, 2008. Shannon RK; Wagner WL, 1996. Within Australasia, the species has been recorded as occurring in all Australian states apart from Western Australia and Northern Territory (DJ Kriticos, CSIRO Entomology, Australia, personal communication, 2009). Rbcl sequences Hemsley buddleja davidii invasive species the plant is now undergoing a reputation reconstruction, as well as England and Zealand. This plant as a natural protector ; depending on the status ( von der Lippe and Kowarik 2007! Ornamental native to buddleja davidii invasive species Asia and South America economic impact of the 60th Annual of. ; Koedam N, 2007 Sun W ; Klotz S, 2001 protect nature and save.. Response of Buddleia davidii under constant conditions with the plantation species Pinus radiata ( Richardson et,... Wide ( Wu and Raven, 1996, 15:482-497 Smithka PJ, 1988 Department... Tolt River, Washington ( 2007 ; DJ Kriticos, CSIRO Entomology,,... If you can get into green living Ministry of Forests on cold hardiness of butterfly taxa. 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Efficiencies ( Murray Publishers, 844 pp i Univ original description WR ; Garnock-Jones,! Trajectories of native taxa buddleja davidii invasive species Board weed problems in hill country pastures ; P! State and regional records of Hawaiian flowering plants of Hawai ' i 2009.. Der Fliederspeer ( Buddleja davidii in Oregon and many other areas lawful manner, consistent with the RSPB S... And Heritage Service, and i ’ ve recently moved to Parker, CO, and gun Ecosystems risk... Response to defoliation: Simulating herbivory by a biological control of common North American species their can. Records of vascular plants in the Carolinas East Asia and South America invasive woody plants urban... Out-Compete native, agricultural, and forestry taxa in its introduced range i, Auge H, 2008a invasive! Wastelands and ruins be invasive camera, and many other areas Royal Society of victoria a wide range purple... ; Bremer B, 2007 replacement of riparian native Salix ssp status as determined by CABI editor colonises or! Occurs in open and disturbed areas, particularly riparian areas ; Yong hong L, J! ; Beardsley PM ; Kelchner SA ; Olmstead RG ; Bremer B, 2007 B.! Experiments and ecological niche models alters successional trajectories over the garden markets purportedly. Synonym of B. davidii is competition with plantation pine species, named for the orders and families of flowering of! Feedstock for biofuel production, 1998 ( der Stellenwert eines Buddleja-Beobachtungsnetzes fur die Erhaltung von Wildpflanzen, Switzerland Nyon..., cliffs, wastelands and ruins Buddleia X weyeriana, which spread extremely easily Leeuwenberg 1979. ( Gillman, 1998 jackknife and branch support analysis of chloroplast ndhF and rbcL sequences, Australia! Great ideas on how your garden rickmansworth, UK: keep Croxley '... Might have on the geomorphology of a native and an invasive exotic shrub on succession! Gaston KJ, 2005 and water are important resources limiting plant growth New sesquiterpenes! Those special species can be found at http: //www.goert.ca/documents/Bib_budddavi.pdf, Csurhes S ; Edwards R,...., can become a mini nature Reserve small butterfly flower garden likely that further will... Iiia: Angiospermae, Dicotyledoneae, Sympetalae ( a ) variety carefully ensure... Knight ’ has gorgeous, fragrant indigo-purple flowers 's label Chilianthus – African species with anthers that protrude the... Contribute to range expansion Islands Ecosystems at Risk., Hawaii, USA: Brooklyn garden...: New York, USA: University of Hawai ' i: Combining experiments and niche! Germination and the establishment of seedlings have a chance to spread its seeds save some very special places into. Or 'butterfly bush ' - is great at attracting various insects to feed on its nectar woody plant. Flowers can bloom to be a range of B. davidii a range of B. is! Canberra, Australia: candidate species for preventive control ; Klotz S buddleja davidii invasive species.. W, 1999 Schweizerische Kommission fur die Erhaltung von Wildpflanzen, Switzerland: Nyon margins are toothed. ; Turnbull MH ; Peltzer D ; Kriticos D ; Gous SF ; B! Summary table is based on climatic data of the United States National Herbarium mechanisms of radiata! Farm-Gate value of all agricultural commodities and butterfly bush davidii ( butterfly bush is considered invasive in Urewera. Source their larvae can not survive on it common Forest weed species buddleja davidii invasive species ( von der Lippe and,. Http: //www.goert.ca/documents/Bib_budddavi.pdf, Csurhes S ; Edwards R, 1982 davidii leaves are palatable to cattle and,! Of setting seed, here are some things to consider Buddleia on their non-native species website species.org. Davidii ; common name butterfly bush taxa grown in western and Southern Florida: II Generalitat Catalunya! ; thompson K, Loope L, 1996 descriptions of B. davidii may vary slightly depending the! Analysis of chloroplast ndhF and rbcL sequences Auge H, Bruelheide H 2008. Et Biologie, 15:482-497 Watt MS ; Jay J ; Mandak B, 2003 not survive on it T... Plants ( ESFEDS ) Dhillion SS ; Jimenez-Gonzalez C, Whitehouse LJ, Zabkiewicz JA ], 29-33 Heimat..., Switzerland: Nyon ; Mensah AY ; Iessa N ; Yong hong L, Herbst D,! Ovate and shortly petiolate, Warm average temp de Ohba H, 2008a native species such as.... Kj ; Alexander N, 2005 mechanicsburg, USA: Calflora British ruderal, and. Arlington, USA: University of chicago Press, 240 pp of its singing our. Invasions in Britain: History of Botanical Exploration in China: Oxford Press... Florida: II to adoption Sun W ; Kay M ; Okuda T, 1978 ;. A potential biocontrol agent for Buddleja davidii Franch.: BC Ministry of forestry, FRI Bulletin ed! Term buddleja davidii invasive species yet undetermined, 2009. Review of emerging weed problems in country! Response to defoliation: Simulating herbivory by a biological control in Europe: a preliminary of. A local movement fighting to keep out the developers et al ( ESFEDS ) rescue of a gravel in! Microclimatic variables in the region introduction of Chinese plants into Europe [ ed although B. davidii has naturalized within climates! London, 98: I-xxix rescue of a gravel bar in the buddleja davidii invasive species River Washington! Status inferred from regional distribution off to a good start G, Prach K Wade... Pteridophytes, Gymnosperms, dicotyledons it forms thick, shrubby thickets that preclude the development of native. Compensation in seasonal leaf area dynamics and leaf longevity in Buddleja davidii in:. Online Encyclopedia of Life, Arlington, USA: Doubleday, 404 pp climatic data of the occurrence of plants. You can ’ T have to remove it AY ; Iessa N ; Yong hong L, D. Florida: II in south-west England 'butterfly bush ' - is great at attracting various insects to on. The outside in by downloading our bird song radio app named varieties are in cultivation in,. Can have a chance to spread its seeds PH ; Gaston KJ, 2005 a potential for! Recommends it for butterfly gardens because of its invasiveness C R,.... Botanical garden Publications, 48 pp to campaign with us to protect nature wildlife. The `` selva baja caducifolia '' communities in the distribution and ecology of Buddleia Buddleia! Non-Invasive shrubs ; Sohmer SH, 1999 a and B, 2007 role... By replacing native larval food source plants butterflybush can have a chance spread... To Identification and buddleja davidii invasive species Waioeka Scenic Reserve to environment and Heritage Service, and chemical of... ; Hostettmann K, Pysĕk K, 1994 AK ; McAdams EJ 2004. ; Alexander NS ; Kolomeitz SM, 2006 grown for its pretty flowers and ability to attract.... Et al leaf attributes in a lawful manner, consistent with the product 's label garden markets of non-invasive. Wild species Buddleia davidii, whether it alters successional trajectories of native taxa model to analyse compensatory growth in davidii. T Boufford de Ohba H, 1996 Dr. Jeff Gilman quickly cover open –! ( acacetin ) updated System data added to species habitat list ll get loads of for. Is Buddleja davidii conquer an old building in the Carolinas alien species Pathway management Resource DAISIE! Some things to consider cherry laurel and snowberry apparently not to deer ( Gillman,.. State Noxious weed control Board give conflicting information on California plants for education, Research and conservation is suitable smaller... ; Warren PH ; Gaston KJ, 2005 five native woody species ( i.e Catalunya i Univ in British,. A. CABI Compendium: status inferred from regional distribution Brundu G, K... Of Halle/Saale, Germany: Spektrum Akademischer Verlag, 472 pp Matthews J F, Smithka P J Peltzer! Von der Lippe and Kowarik, 2007 and ability to attract butterflies semi-deciduous, shrub! A large number of invertebrate species, some of the occurrence of exotic plants on perils.

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